Saturday, December 29, 2007

History : HYUNDAI

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Hyundai
Hangul 현대
Hanja 現代
Revised Romanization Hyeondae
McCune-Reischauer Hyŏndae

Hyundai refers to a group of companies and related organizations founded by Chung Ju-yung in South Korea. The first Hyundai company was founded in 1947 as a construction company, and the Hyundai Group eventually became South Korea's largest conglomerate company (chaebol).

The most well-known Hyundai organization is the Hyundai Motor Company, the world's 6th largest automaker. Hyundai Heavy Industries is the world's largest shipbuilder, and Hynix is a top semiconductor producer. Other companies currently or formerly controlled by members of Chung's extended family may be loosely referred to as a part of the Hyundai chaebol.

The Hyundai Group underwent massive restructuring following the 1997 East Asian financial crisis and the founder's death in 2001. Today, many companies bearing the Hyundai name are legally unrelated, with each company having a different chairman. Former components include Hyundai Group, Hyundai Kia Automotive Group, Hyundai Department Store Group, Hyundai Heavy Industries Group, and Hyundai Development Group. After the separation, Hyundai Group focuses on elevators, container services, and tourism to Mount Kumgang.

The word "hyundai" means "modernity" in Korean, and is pronounced [çʌn.dɛ]). It is often pronounced as [hʌ] in North America, as [haɪ.ʌn.daɪ] in the United Kingdom, as [hi.jʌn.dæɪ] in Australia, and as [ɣɛɴdai] in Japan. Early American advertising for the Hyundai Excel car informed readers that the name, "rhymes with Sunday".

Monday, December 24, 2007


Nissan Motors
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Nissan)
"Nissan" redirects here. For other uses, see Nissan (disambiguation).Nissan Motor Company, Limited
Nissan Jidosha Kabushiki-gaisha

Type Public (TYO: 7201; NASDAQ: NSANY)
Founded 1932
Headquarters HQ in Chūō-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Key people Kenjiro Den, Founder
Rokuro Aoyama, Founder
Meitaro Takeuchi, Founder
Carlos Ghosn, CEO, President, Co-Chair
Itaru Koeda, Co-Chair, Exec. VP
Takeshi Isayama, Vice Chair
Toshiyuki Shiga, COO
Nobuo Okubo, Exec. VP, Director
Industry Auto & Truck Manufacturers
Products Automobiles, Engines, Electronics and Communications, numerous others
Revenue $75.63 billion USD (2004)
Employees 159,771 (2005)
Slogan SHIFT

Nissan Motor Company, Limited (日産自動車株式会社 Nissan Jidōsha Kabushiki-gaisha?) (TYO: 7201, NASDAQ: NSANY) is a Japanese automobile manufacturer, which formerly marketed vehicles under the Datsun brand name and is one of the largest car manufacturers.

The company's main offices are located in the Ginza area of Chūō-ku, Tokyo with disassembling by 2013, but Nissan plans to move their headquarters to Yokohama, Kanagawa by 2010, with construction starting in 2007. In 1999, Nissan entered an alliance with Renault S.A. of France. Nissan is among the top three Asian rivals of the "big three" in the U.S. Currently they are the third largest Japanese car manufacturer.

The Nissan VQ engines, of V6 configuration, have featured among Ward's 10 Best Engines for 12 straight years, since the award's inception.

Much like its brother Renault, the pronunciation of its name is different in different markets. In the U.S., the brand is said /ˈniːsɑn/, while in the UK it is pronounced /ˈnɪsən/. In Japan, it is pronounced /nisːãɴ/.Contents [hide]

Beginnings of Datsun name from 1914

In 1914, the Kwaishinsha Motorcar Works (快進自動車工場 Kaishin Jidōsha Kōjō?), established three years earlier, in Azabu-Hiroo District in Tokyo, built the first DAT. The new car's name was an acronym of the company's partners' family names:
Kenjiro Den (田 健次郎 Den Kenjirō?)
Rokuro Aoyama (青山 禄朗 Aoyama Rokurō?)
Meitaro Takeuchi (竹内 明太郎 Takeuchi Meitarō?).

The works was renamed to Kwaishinsha Motorcar Co. in 1918, and again, in 1925, to DAT Motorcar Co.
Nissan Model 70 Phaeton, 1938

DAT Motors built trucks in addition to the DAT and Datsun passenger cars. The vast majority of its output was trucks, as there was almost no consumer market for cars at the time. Beginning in 1918, the first DAT trucks were produced for the military market. It was the low demand of the military market in the 1920s that forced DAT to merge in 1926 with Japan's 2nd most successful truck maker, Jitsuyo Motors.

In 1926 the Tokyo-based DAT Motors merged with the Osaka-based Jitsuyo Jidosha Co., Ltd. (実用自動車製造株式会社 Jitsuyō Jidōsha Seikoku Kabushiki-Gaisha?) a.k.a. Jitsuyo Motors (established 1919, as a Kubota subsidiary) to become DAT Automobile Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (ダット自動車製造株式会社 Datto Jidōsha Seizō Kabushiki-Gaisha?) in Osaka until 1932.

In 1931, DAT came out with a new smaller car, the first "Datson", meaning "Son of DAT". Later in 1933 after Nissan took control of DAT Motors, the last syllable of Datson was changed to "sun", because "son" also means "loss" (損) in Japanese, hence the name "Datsun" (ダットサン Dattosan?).[1]

In 1933, the company name was Nipponized to Jidosha-Seizo Co., Ltd. (自動車製造株式会社 Jidōsha Seizō Kabushiki-Gaisha?, "Automobile Manufacturing Co., Ltd.") and was moved to Yokohama.

Nissan name first used in 1930s

In 1928, Yoshisuke Aikawa founded the holding company Nippon Sangyo (Japan Industries or Nippon Industries). "Then name 'Nissan' originated during the 1930s as an abbreviation"[2] used on the Tokyo stock market for Nippon Sangyo. This company was the famous Nissan "Zaibatsu" (combine) which included Tobata Casting and Hitachi. At this time Nissan controlled foundries and auto parts businesses, but Aikawa did not enter automobile manufacturing until 1933.[3]

Nissan would eventually grow to include 74 firms, and to be the fourth-largest combine in Japan during World War II.[4]

In 1931, Aikawa purchased controlling(?) shares in DAT Motors, and then in 1933 it merged Tobata Casting's automobile parts department with DAT Motors. As Tobata Casting was a Nissan company, this was the beginning of Nissan's automobile manufacturing.[5]

Nissan Motors founded in 1934

In 1934, Aikawa "separated the expanded automobile parts division of Tobata Casting and incorporated it as a new subsidiary, which he named Nissan Motor (Nissan)". Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (日産自動車 Nissan Jidōsha?). The shareholders of the new company however were not enthusiastic about the prospects of the automobile in Japan, so Aikawa bought out all the Tobata Casting shareholders (using capital from Nippon Industries) in June, 1934. At this time Nissan Motors effectively became owned by Nippon Sangyo and Hitachi.[6]

Nissan built trucks, airplanes, and engines for the Japanese military. The company's main plant was moved to China after land there was captured by Japan. The plant made machinery for the Japanese war effort until it was captured by American and Russian forces. For two years (1947 to 1948) the company was briefly called Nissan Heavy Industries Corp. (日産重工業 Nissan Jū Kōgyō?) 
Nissan's early American connection

DAT had inherited Kubota's chief designer who was an American, William R. Gorham. This, along with Aikawa's vision-inspiring 1908 visit to Detroit was to greatly affect Nissan's future.

Although it had always been Aikawa's intention to use the latest cutting-edge automaking technology from America, it was Gorham that carried out this plan. All the machinery, vehicle designs and engine designs originally came out of the USA. Much of the tooling came from the Graham factory and Nissan had a Graham license under which trucks were made. The machinery was imported into Japan by Mitsubishi[7] on behalf of Nissan, which went into the first Yokohama factory to produce Datsuns.

Tie-ups with Austin Motor Company

Like Hino and Isuzu, but unlike Toyota, Nissan partnered with an established European company to gain access to automobile and engine designs. Nissan chose Austin of the United Kingdom, which later became the British Motor Corporation by its merger with Morris et al. Nissan began building Austin 7s in 1930, though the legitimacy of their license at that time is debated.

Later, in 1952 Nissan Motor Company of Japan entered into a well-documented legal agreement with Austin ,[8] for Nissan to assemble 2,000 Austins from imported partially assembled sets and sell them in Japan under the Austin trademark. The agreement called for Nissan to make all Austin parts locally within three years, a goal Nissan met. Nissan produced and marketed Austins for seven years. The agreement also gave Nissan rights to use Austin patents, which Nissan used in developing its own engines for its Datsun line of cars. In 1953 British-built Austins were assembled and sold, but by 1955, the Austin A50 -- completely built by Nissan and featuring a slightly larger body with new 1489 cc engine -- was on the market in Japan. Nissan produced 20,855 Austins from 1953-1959.[9]

Engine Development: Nissan leveraged the Austin patents to further develop their own modern engine designs past what the Austin's A- and B-family designs offered. The apex of the Austin-derived engines was the new design A series engine in 1967. Also in 1967 Nissan introduced its new highly advanced four cylinder overhead cam (OHC) Nissan L engine, which while similar to Mercedes-Benz OHC designs was a totally new engine designed by Nissan. This engine powered the new Datsun 510, which gained Nissan respect in the worldwide sedan market. Then, in 1970 Nissan introduced the Datsun 240Z sports car which used a six-cylinder variation of the L series engine. The 240Z was an immediate sensation and lifted Nissan to world class status in the automobile market.[citation needed]

Merger with Prince Motor Company

In 1966, Nissan merged with the Prince Motor Company, bringing into its range more upmarket cars, including the Skyline and Gloria. The Prince name was eventually abandoned, with successive Skylines and Glorias bearing the Nissan name - however, "Prince" is still used in names of certain Nissan dealers in Japan. Nissan introduced a new luxury brand for the US market in the early 1990s called Infiniti.
Foreign expansion

In the 1950s, Nissan made a conscious decision to expand into worldwide markets. Nissan management realized their Datsun small car line would fill an unmet need in markets such as Australia and the the world's largest car market, the United States. In 1958 they first showed cars at the 1959 Los Angeles auto show, and sold a few cars that year in the United States. The company formed a U.S. subsidiary, Nissan Motor Corporation in U.S.A., in 1959, headed by Yutaka Katayama. By continually technologically improving their sedans, along with chic Italianate styling and adding sporty cars such as the Datsun Fairlady roadsters, the sporty and race-winning 411 series, the Datsun 510 and the world-class Datsun 240Z sports car, by 1970 Nissan had became one of the world's largest exporters of automobiles.

In the wake of the 1973 oil crisis, consumers worldwide (especially in the lucrative U.S. market) began turning in rapidly increasing numbers to high-quality small economy cars. Nissan made a conscious decision for their growing economy car lines to have a "sporting" flavor, and set up new factories in Mexico and Australia, Taiwan and South Africa.
Nissan GT-R Proto

The firm established assembly operations in the United States in the early 1980s, with a plant in Smyrna, Tennessee. This facility at first built only trucks and SUVs, such as the 720, Hardbody, and Pathfinder, but has since been expanded to produce several car lines. An engine plant in Decherd, Tennessee followed, and most recently a second assembly plant in Canton, Mississippi.

In order to overcome export tariffs and delivery costs to its European customers, Nissan contemplated establishing a plant inside Europe's borders. After an extensive review, Sunderland in United Kingdom was chosen due to the local availability of a highly skilled workforce and its position near major ports. The plant was completed in 1986 as the subsidiary Nissan Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd. Since then it has arisen to achieve the highly coveted title of being the most productive plant in Europe, and by 2007 will be producing 400,000 vehicles per year.

Financial difficulties (approaching billions) in Australia in the late 1980s caused Nissan to cease production there. Due to the "Button Plan" the Australian operation was unique as the Nissan products were also re-badged both by General Motors Holden (Pulsar re-badged as Holden Astra), and Ford (Bluebird re-badged as Ford Corsair).

Alliance with Renault

In the late 20th century, with Nissan facing severe financial difficulties, Nissan entered an alliance with Renault S.A. of France.[10]

Signed on March 27, 1999, the Renault-Nissan Alliance is the first of its kind involving a Japanese and a French company, each with its own distinct corporate culture and brand identity. The same year, Renault appointed its own Chief Operating Officer, the Brazilian-born Carlos Ghosn (of Lebanese descent), as Chief Operating Officer of Nissan and took a 22.5% stake in Nissan Diesel. Later that year, Nissan fired its top Japanese executives.

The Renault-Nissan Alliance is a unique group of two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 44.3% of Nissan shares, while Nissan holds 15% of Renault shares.

Under president Ghosn's "Nissan Revival Plan" (NRP), the company has rebounded in what many leading economists consider to be one of the most spectacular corporate turnarounds in history, catapulting Nissan to record profits and a dramatic revitalization of both its Nissan and Infiniti model line-ups. Despite the turnaround, Infiniti sales have been a disappointment. In 2001, the company initiated Nissan 180, capitalizing on the success of the NRP. The targets set with 180 were an additional sale of 1 million cars, achieving operating margins of 8%, and to have zero automotive debts. Ghosn has been recognized in Japan for the company's turnaround in the midst of an ailing Japanese economy. Ghosn and the Nissan turnaround were featured in Japanese manga and popular culture. His achievements in revitalizing Nissan were noted by Emperor Akihito, who awarded him the Japan Medal with Blue Ribbon in 2004.

Recent news

The Nissan Note and Micra in the UK are both produced at their UK factory in Washington, Sunderland. Nissan also produces cars at its factory at Roslyn, near Pretoria, South Africa.

In 2002, Toyota and Nissan agree to tie-up on hybrid technologies, and in 2004, Nissan unveiled the Altima hybrid prototype.

Nissan began development of fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs) in 1996 and launched limited lease sales of the X-Trail FCV in Japan in fiscal year 2003.

On May 17, 2006 Nissan released the Atlas 20 hybrid truck in Japan. It released a Cabstar hybrid truck at the 2006 Hannover Fair.

On June 30, 2006, General Motors convened an emergency board meeting to discuss a proposal by shareholder Kirk Kerkorian to form an alliance between GM and Renault-Nissan. On October 4, 2006, however, GM and Nissan terminated talks because of the chasm between the two companies related to compensation to GM from Nissan.

The company's head office is now in Tokyo but will move back to Yokohama in 2009. Nissan North America relocated its headquarters from Gardena, California to Nashville, Tennessee in July 2006. A new headquarters is being built in Franklin, Tennessee, due to be complete in the summer of 2008.

The Tamil Nadu state government signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with auto manufacturing consortium, Mahindra-Renault- Nissan to set up a production unit at Oragadam in suburban Chennai last week.

The consortium comprising Indian auto major Mahindra and Mahindra, Renault (France) and Nissan ( Japan) will begin with an initial investment of Rs4000 crore to manufacture nearly 50,000 tractors every year other than cars, utility vehicles and spare parts.

The project is expected to increase Tamil Nadu’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by Rs18,000 crore annually while providing 41,000 jobs.

Presidents and Chief Executive Officers of Nissan:
1933-1939 Yoshisuke Aikawa
1939-1942 Masasuke Murakami
1942-1944 Genshichi Asahara
1944-1945 Haruto Kudo
1945 Takeshi Murayama
1945-1947 Souji Yamamoto
1947-1951 Taichi Minoura
1951-1957 Genshichi Asahara
1957-1973 Katsuji Kawamata
1973-1977 Tadahiro Iwakoshi
1977-1985 Takashi Ishihara
1985-1992 Yutaka Kume
1992-1996 Yoshifume Tsuji
1996-2000 Yoshikazu Hanawa
2000-present Carlos Ghosn

Automotive products
Main articles: List of Nissan vehicles and List of Nissan engines.

Nissan has produced an extensive range of mainstream cars and trucks, initially for domestic consumption but exported around the world since the 1950s. There was a major strike in 1953.

It also produced several memorable sports cars, including the Datsun Fairlady 1500, 1600 and 2000 Roadsters, the Z-car, an affordable sports car originally introduced in 1969; and the Skyline GT-R, a powerful all-wheel-drive sports coupe.

In 1985, Nissan created a tuning division, NISMO, for competition and performance development of such cars.Nismo's latest model is the 350Z LM.

The recently launched mid-sized Nissan Navara truck has 175 bhp.

Until 1982, Nissan automobiles in most export markets were sold under the Datsun brand. Since 1989, Nissan has sold its luxury models in North America under the Infiniti brand.

Nissan also sells a small range of keicars, mainly as a joint venture with other Japanese manufacturers like Suzuki or Mitsubishi. Nissan does not develop these cars. Nissan also has shared model development of Japan domestic cars with other manufacturers, particularly Mazda, Subaru, Suzuki and Isuzu.

In China, Nissan produces cars in association with the Dongfeng Motor Group including the 2006 Nissan Livina Geniss. This is the first in the range of a new worldwide family of medium sized cars and is to make its world debut at the Guangzhou International Motor Show.

Nissan launches Qashqai SUV in South Africa, along with their new motorsport Qashqai Car Games.
Alternative propulsion

Carlos Ghosn, chief executive of Nissan Motor, which is 44 percent owned by Renault, plans to start selling electric cars in 2012 as the company anticipates demand from city drivers. It would be good date for both for Renault and Nissan to introduce mass-market electric cars, Ghosn told a group of journalists at the Tokyo Motor Show on Wednesday October 24, 2007. [11]

Nissan Motors is in the Advisory Council of the PHEV Research Center.

Nissan Motor and Robert Bosch GmbH are in talks to form a comprehensive alliance in hybrid systems and parts. [12]

Non-automotive products

Nissan has also had a number of ventures outside the automotive industry, most notably the Tu-Ka mobile phone service (est. 1994), which was sold to DDI and Japan Telecom (both now merged into KDDI Corporation) in 1999. Nissan also owns Nissan Marine, a joint venture with Tohatsu Corp that produces motors for boats and other maritime equipment.